GPS-SUMO: a tool for the prediction of sumoylation sites and SUMO-interaction motifs


Small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) regulate a variety of cellular processes through two distinct mechanisms, including covalent sumoylation and non-covalent SUMO interaction. The complexity of SUMO regulations has greatly hampered the large-scale identification of SUMO substrates or interaction partners on a proteome-wide level. In this work, we developed a new tool called GPS-SUMO for the prediction of both sumoylation sites and SUMO-interaction motifs (SIMs) in proteins. To obtain an accurate performance, a new generation group-based prediction system (GPS) algorithm integrated with Particle Swarm Optimization approach was applied. By critical evaluation and comparison, GPS-SUMO was demonstrated to be substantially superior against other existing tools and methods. With the help of GPS-SUMO, it is now possible to further investigate the relationship between sumoylation and SUMO interaction processes. A web service of GPS-SUMO was implemented in PHP + JavaScript and freely available at

Nucleic acids research